Four Noble Truths == 四圣谛
It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni
1.Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
2.Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by passions (Cause of Suffering)
3.Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
4.Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.
The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to the life outside and beyond this world.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic companions.